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The keel of the Bismarck was laid down on 1 July 1936 at the Blohm & Voss Shipyard facilities in Hamburg, construction number BV 509, on Slipway 9. By September 1938, the hull was already complete to the level of the upper deck. The launching ceremony took place at 1300 hours on Tuesday, 14 February 1939, and it was attended by more than 60,000 people, government officials, military personalities, and yard workers. It was a nice day highlighted by sparkling sunshine. The Panzerschiff Admiral Scheer, the light cruiser Nürnberg, the aviso Grille, and three boats of the 4th Torpedo Flotilla had gathered in the harbour. Photographing and cameras was not permitted among guests, and only official agencies were allowed to take pictures. Adolf Hitler and his party arrived at the shipyard on board the yacht Hamburg,1) and then the Führer stepped up to the christening rostrum at the bow of the ship to deliver the customary pre-launch speech which was closed with the following lines:
Immediately afterwards, Admiral Raeder said a few words:
The crowd joined in with enthusiasm. After a calm set in, the hull was christened by Frau Dorothea von Loewenfeld, granddaughter of the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck, after whom the ship was named.
Moments later, at 1334, the last breaking chocks were freed up, the hydraulic jacks began to push, and the cheers of the tens of thousands almost drowned out the sound of the German national anthem (Deutschland über alles) which accompanied the Bismarck in her glide down the launching ramp as she entered the water for the fist time.
The Bismarck was the last capital ship launched at the Blohm & Voss shipyard. The first battleship of the new H-Class was laid down on 15 July 1939, but construction was suspended less than three months later on 10 October, and finally cancelled on August 1941. After that, all the yard resources were focused on the construction of U-boats.
After the launching, the Bismarck was moored to the equipping pier where the boilers, turrets and all other parts of the superstructure began to be installed. The plates of the armoured belt were attached to the hull’s sides. In addition, after the initial sea trials carried out by the battleship Gneisenau in the Atlantic, it was decided to replace the original straight stem with a new "Atlantic" bow that offered better sea-keeping capabilities and a different arrangement for the anchors.2) The war started in September 1939, but despite this and the hard winter that followed, the construction work continued as scheduled.
In April 1940, the first members of the future crew began to assemble aboard, and with them the 46 year-old newly-appointed ship's commander, Kapitän zur See Ernst Lindemann. The Bismarck was still completing, and these men started the first phase of training intended to get familiarised with the battleship's equipment such as the boilers, turbines, turrets etc. On 23 June, the Bismarck entered the floating dry dock No. V-VI where the three propellers and the MES (Mangnetischer Eigenschutz) magnetic self-protection system were installed. The keel was also repainted. The battleship got out of the dry dock on 14 July and then she was again moored to the pier. A few days later, on 21 July, the Bismarck underwent an inclining test (Krängungsversuch), and in the “empty ship as completed condition” at 42,500 mt, a metacentric height (GM) of 3.9 metres was recorded. The crew, officially comprised of 103 officers and 1,962 non-commissioned officers and men, was still not complete, and new men came aboard gradually. Actually, they did not live aboard the Bismarck yet, and most of them were lodged at the barrack ships General Artigas and Oceana.
The Bismarck in dry dock June-July 1940.
The Day of Commissioning.
On Saturday, 24 August 1940, the ship was finally ready to be commissioned and enter in active service with the Kriegsmarine. It was a cloudy day, and the crew was formed on the upper deck waiting for Captain Lindemann to appear in order to begin the commissioning ceremony. Shortly before noon, Lindemann approached the battleship on a white captain's launch which carried the German battle flag. The Captain stepped aboard and proceeded to inspect the honour guard first, then the officers, and the rest of the crew thereafter. The Executive Officer (I.O.), Fregattenkapitän Hans Oels and Kapitänleutnant von Müllenheim-Rechberg (at the time, adjutant to the commanding officer) escorted him. After inspecting the ship's company, Lindemann went to the afterdeck to say a few words and then gave the order to hoist the battle flag:
At this time the ship's band began to play the Dutch March of Honour (Holländischer Ehrenmarsch), and Master signal mate Franz J. Scharhag, who had the honour to carry the battle flag (Kriegsflagge) rolled up under his right arm, and another signal mate at the flagstaff, hoisted the flag. The band ended the ceremony with the national anthem, followed by the Horst Wessel Lied and the last verse of Englandlied. The battleship Bismarck was now in service and all the men were dismissed and ordered below decks.3)
Captain Ernst Lindemann inspecting the honour guard on 24 August 1940.
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